Bipolar Disorder, also known as Bipolar Disease or Manic Depression, is a mental illness marked by extreme shifts in mood, energy, thinking, and behaviour. The mood swings associated with Bipolar Disorder often begin erratically, with no apparent cause. Unlike ordinary mood swings, the mood changes of Bipolar Disorder are disproportionately intense, and in cases, it disrupts the ability for a person to function in their daily life. Bipolar Disorder is a psychological maladjustment set apart by outrageous shifts in temperament. The symptoms can incorporate an elevated mood called mania. They also incorporate episodes of depression. Unfortunately, there is no cure for Bipolar Disorder, but many treatment options are available to help patients manage their symptoms.
Bipolar Disorder symptoms can cause unusual changes in disposition and conduct, bringing about considerable trouble throughout life. Three fundamental symptoms can happen with Bipolar Disorder.
In mania, an individual with bipolar may feel highly emotional. They feel energized, indiscreet, euphoric, and brimming with energy. Hypomania is a part of Bipolar II Disorder. It is like mania; however, it is not as severe. In contrast to mania, it may not bring about any difficulty at work, school, or social life (Holland, 2018).
Both Mania and Hypomania have at least three of the following episodes (Parekh, 2017):
- Abnormally playful, wired or unsteady
- Increased movement and energy
- An exaggerated feeling of prosperity and self-assurance (elation)
- Decreased requirement for rest
- Unusual loquacity
- Racing contemplations
- Impoverished decision-making providence. Such as uncontrolled purchasing and or taking sexual challenges
An episode of depression incorporates at least five of the following symptoms (Parekh, 2017):
- The depressed state of mind
- Significant weight loss and gain, or increase and decrease in appetite
- Insomnia or excess sleep pattern
- Too slowed activities and or anxiety
- Feelings of uselessness
- Inconclusive amount of guilt
- Decreased capacity to think or focus
- Self-destruction behaviour or thinking pattern
- Suicidal ideation
The specific reason for Bipolar Disorder is obscure. However, a few variables for the cause of Bipolar Disorder are:
- Physiological differences – individuals with Bipolar Disorder seem to have physiological changes associated with their brain.
- Hereditary qualities – Bipolar Disorder is more hereditable with individuals who have kin with the condition. For example, siblings, parents, and grandparents.
There are three types of Bipolar Disorders that include Bipolar I, Bipolar II, and Cyclothymia. Bipolar I is characterized by the presence of at any rate one episode. An individual may encounter hypomanic or depressive episode before or after the episode of manic. The prevalence of bipolar I in males and females is equivalent (Holland, 2018). Individuals with Bipolar II disorder experience one significant depressive episode, which lasts for fourteen days. Bipolar II likewise has, at any rate, one hypomanic episode that lasts for four days. Bipolar II is more prevalent in females than in males (Parekh, 2017). Individuals with Cyclothymia have scenes of hypomania and depression. These manifestations are more limited and less severe than the manic and depression brought about by bipolar I or bipolar II disorder. A great many people with this condition experience a month or two, where their temperaments are steady (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2018).
The treatment for Bipolar Disorder recommended by medical professionals is psychotropic medications and psychotherapy (NAMI., 2017). Medicines mostly include mood stabilizers and antidepressants, contingent upon the particular symptoms manifested by the patient. On the off chance that depressive effects are extreme, and if medication and psychotherapy are not working on the patient or individual, ECT is pertinent (Newman, 2020).
Bipolar Disorder can run in families. 80-90 percent of people with Bipolar Disorder have a relative with either Bipolar Disorder or depression. The environmental factors can likewise add to Bipolar Disorder, for example, stress or external pressure, disruption in sleep pattern, and or use of drugs. People with alcohol and substance abuse disorder may be more at risk of having the Disorder in the near future (Smith, Segal, 2020). According to studies, 1 in every 100 individuals is diagnosed to have Bipolar Disorder in their lives (Bhargava, 2020). The onset age is around 25 years; however, it can happen in teenagers, or all the more extraordinarily, in children. The condition influences males and females similarly, with about 2.8% of the U.S. populace diagnosed with bipolar and almost 83% of cases delegated as too severe (Holland, 2018).
If an individual does not treat their Bipolar Disorder, it can bring confusion to them and bring significant issues that influence each aspect of life, such as the following (Bhargava, 2020):
- Problems identified with medication and liquor use
- Suicide or self-destruction endeavours
- Legal or money related issues
- Unhealthy relations
- Poor performance at work or school.
In conclusion, Bipolar Disorder is a disease that can be managed through lifelong treatment and enables one to live a healthy life. The individuals who likewise have a substance abuse disorder may require more particular treatment. The more one knows the Disorder and or disease, the better they can deal with the symptoms and manage it accordingly.
- Bhargava, H.D. (2020). WebMD: Bipolar Disorder: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment.
- Mayo Clinic Staff. (2018). Mayo Clinic: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research – Bipolar Disorder.
- National Alliance on Mental Illness, NAMI. (2017). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Bipolar Disorder.
- Newman, T. (2020). Medical News Today: What to know about bipolar disorder.
- NHS Choices. (2019). Bipolar Disorder.
- Parekh, R. (2017). American Psychiatric Association (APA): What Are Bipolar Disorders?
- Holland, K. (2018). Healthline: What’s Bipolar Disorder? How Do I Know If I Have It?
- Smith, M., Segal. J. (2020). HelpGuide: Bipolar Disorder Signs and Symptoms.